The frames and solutions that emerge from them are very distinct. If the latter (repression), then sanctions and threats and naming/shaming will not work. In line with my forthcoming book the death and life of state repression with Ben Appel (The Death and Life of State Repression), the Russian regime will need to be changed. Within the book, it is argued that repression is a very sticky process that is largely slow-moving and non-adaptive. Consequently, change in this behavior is rare unless the ruling cohort is perturbed in some manner. Now what perturbs is somewhat surprising. The Death and Life of State Repression does not argue or find support for the predominant variables/policies advanced by the international community (i.e., naming/shaming, international law, military intervention and economic sanctions). Rather, it advances and finds that political democratization plays a crucial role in reducing and stopping most aspects of repressive spells and democratization itself is influenced by non-violent direction action. Seeing the protests throughout Russia and the different members of civil society stepping forward against the regime, we would do well to remember the differential framing.
Note: Apologies for not posting lately. I am working on a few books and decided to take some time off from posting.